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Phosphoric Acid (Tech-Food Grade) 85%
SYNONYMS Hydrogen phosphate; o-Phosphoric acid
Acide Phosphorique (French); Acido Fosforico (ltallian); Fosforzuuroplossingen (Dutch); Ortho-phosphoramide; Phosphorsaeureloesungen (German); White Phosphoric Acid; Orthophosphorsaure (German); acido ortofosforico (Spanish); Acide orthophosphorique (French);
DERIVATION calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (85%)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION & APPLICATIONS
Phosphoric acid is a phosphorus-containing inorganic acid made up of phosphorus, oxygen, and hydrogen. In a broardened term, it includes the monomeric (orthophosphoric acid), dimeric (pyrophosphoric acid), and polymeric (metaphosphoric acid) forms of the acid Phosphoric acid commonly indicates the monomeric form orthophosphoric acid. On heating to about 225 C, it dehydrates to form pyrophosphoric acid and to metaphosphoric acid (2HPO3=P2O5) at higher temperatures. Pyrophosphates are salts of pyrophosphoric acid and metaphosphates are salts of metaphosphoric acid Two molecules of orthophosphoric acid are formed when three molecules of water are added to one molecule of phosphorus pentoxide (2H3P04= P205.3H2O). The pyrophosphates are formed by the loss of 1 molecule of water from 2 moles of an orthophosphate. Pure orthophosphoric acid is a crystalline solid; melting point 42 C. And very soluble in water. Phosphoric Acid violently polymerizes under the influence of azo compounds, epoxides and other polymerizable compounds. It forms toxic fumes of phosphorous oxides when combusted. It is a medium strong acid and attacks metals to release flammable hydrogen gas. Decomposition may occur on contacting with alcohols, aldehydes, cyanides, ketones, phenols, esters. sulfides, halogenated organics compounds.
Phosphoric acid is essential in the body organism as the constituent of bones and teeth as well as in many metabolic process of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Phosphoric acid is abundant in natural foods as the form of free phosphoric acid itself or as the mineral salts (potassium, sodium or calcium). Phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages. But the continuous (and excessive absorption of beverages particularly Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola which contain large amount of phosphoric acid should be limited. Phosphate execretion takes place in the form of calcium phosphate. The excessive amounts of phosphoric acid in the body may cause calcium deficiency which causes poor teeth and weak bone density (osteoporosis). Phosphoric acid is used in pharmaceutical preparations as a solvent and as a gastric acidifier orally. Phosphoric acid is important raw material in industrial field .It, is a tribasic acid (having three replaceable hydrogen atoms) which can forms phosphates with either one, two, or all three of the hydrogens byI, replacing with some other positive ion. It is used in making fertilizers, electrolytes, electroplating and derusting solutions. It is used in the manufacture of industrial cleaning products, other inorganic and organic phosphoric chemicals, foundry resins, paints, enamels and refractory, antifreeze productions, and textile process materials. It is used in water treatment. Food grade phosphoric acid is used; as a acidulation in soft drink (particularly cola); ph control in imitation jellies; nutrient in production of yeast; bacteria growth control in selected processed foods;flocculating agent for clarification of sugar juices after liming process.
One of the important phosphates is calcium phosphate, Ca3(P04)2. The most important phosphorus fertilizer is monobasic calcium phosphate, called superphosphate (Ca(H2P04)) derived by treating rock phosphate with sulfuric acid (or phosphoric acid). Superphosphate is soluble in water and acts as a carrier of phosphorus needed by plants. Diabasic calcium phosphate(CaHPO4) is used in pharmaceuticals, animal feeds, and toothpastes. Tribasic calcium phosphate, (Ca3(PO4)2) is used as a fertilizer and as a plastics stabilizer. Other important inorganic phosphates include ammonium phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) used as a fertilizer and fire tetardant;trisodium phosphate used in detergents and for softening water; mono and disodium phosphate used for dispersion, sequastration, scale inhibition and preparing baking powders. The slat forms of phosphate polymers is used as a sequestering agent. As phosphate polymers themselves are hydrated in water at high temperature of high PH, and thereby revert to a more simple and stable phosphate from which can no longer sequester metal ions. Industrial phosphates are used in many applications including dispersion, sequestration and scale inhibition. Detergent application is important also, with products such as sodium tripolyhosphate being key ingredients in detergents. Phosphates are used in a wide range of food products to perform sevceral functions like retention of natural fluids in the muscle that would otherwise be lost in the aging, cooking, or freeze thaw processes. Polyphosphates also act in solubilization of myofibrillar proteins that aid in the binding of meat particles. Their presence results in stabilized texture, flavour and colour
Mono and dibasic phosphate esters produced by the reaction of either alcohols. ethoxylates or phenyl ethoxylates with polyphosphoric acid or phosphorous pentoxide are anionic surfactants which have the main feature of the stability in alkaline conditions over other surfactants. They have a wide range of properties including outstanding wetting, emulsification,lubrication,.coupling activity and detergency. They exhibit the properties of anti-wear and corrosion inhibition either as free esters or in the forms of metal and amine salts. They are used in
Phosphoric acid alkyl esters are also used as alkylation agent for nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and as catalysts to produce phenolic and urea resins. They are used flame retarding plasticizers for cellulose esters, lacquers, plastic and vinyl resins as well as as dispersing agents in plastisols. They are used as solvents in liquid-liquid extractants or separation agent of metals.
DESCRIPTION OF PHOSPHORUS
Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element in group 15 (nitrogen family, formerly Va) of periodic table; atomic number 15 atomic mass 30.9738; melting point ca 44.1 C (white); boiling point ca 280 C (white); specific gravity 1.82 (white), 2.34 (red), 2.70 (black), valence-3, +3, or +5; electronic config 2-8-5 or 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 3. The phosphorus molecule is composed of four phosphorus atoms, P4 Phosphorus exists in a number of allotropic forms (white (alpha and ,beta), red black and/or violet) in the same physical state. White phosphorus is a white to yellow waxy substance which ignites spontaneously in air to form white fumes of phosphorus pentoxide and glows without emitting heat. Phosphorus is stored underwater as it is extremely poisonous, insoluble in water (but soluble in carbon disulfide). Commercial production of elemental phosphorus is prepared from phosphorite or phosphate rock (apatite, an impure calcium phosphate mineral) reacting with coke and sand or silica pebblesor at high temperatures in an electric furnace. Calcium silicate is produced as a by-product. White phosphorus is used as a deoxidizing agent in the preparation of steel and phosphor bronze. It is also used in rat poisons and to make smoke screens (by burning) for warfare. When white phosphorus is heated to about 250 C with air absence, it changes into the red phosphorus. Red phosphorus, a dark reddish powder or crystal, does not ignite spontaneously unless heated to 200 C, does not phosphoresce and it is a little less dangerous than white phosphorus. It is used to make matches. Red phosphorus is prepared commercially by heating calcium phosphate with sand and coke in an electric furnace. Black allotrope is obtained industrially by heating at 300 C under pressure with a mercury catalyst. It has a layer structure and is stable. The major use of phosphorus compounds is in fertilizers, mainly as a mixture called superphosphate (calcium hydrogen phosphate) obtained from phosphate minerals by sulfuric acid treatment: and in nitrophosphates. Phosphorus is burned to make phosphorus pentoxide (phosphorus(V) oxide), a white solid used a chlorinating agent in organic chemistry , as a drying agnet and mainly converted to phosphoric acid used to make phosphates for fertilizers, electro chemical polishing and shaping, electroplating, metal cleaning and pickling in metal treatment by reaction with water. Phosphorus is highly reactive. A wide range of compounds is formed for uses in detergents, water softeners, pharmaceuticals, dentifrices, and in many other important applications. It forms metal phosphides and covalently bonded phosphorus (III) and phosphorus (V) compounds. Phosphoric acid can combine with certain alkaline elements to form slats called phosphates