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Glycerine (glycerin, glycerol, or 1,2,3-propanetriol) is the simplest trihedric alcohol. Pure glycerine, with a specific gravity of 1.26, is a colorless, odorless, sweet, viscous liquid melting at 17.8 C boiling at 290 C. It decomposes at boiling point and produce corrosive fumes of acrolein. It is miscible in water and forms a solution in any proportion. It is also soluble alcohol but only partially soluble in common organic solvents such as ether and ethyl acetate. It resists freezing. It is hygroscopic, which favors as a humectant to retain moisture in cosmetics. It reacts violently with acetic anhydrides in the presence of a catalyst. It is obtained as a byproduct when fats and oils are hydrolyzed to yield fatty acids or soaps. Glycerol is also commercially synthesized from propylene (Dow Chemical). Glycerol can also be obtained based on a proprietary fermentation processing. Glycerol is widely used; as a solvent, food additive, sweetening agent and emollient and emulcent with magnesium sulphate used in the treatment of septic wounds and boils; in the manufacture of alkyd resin, cellophane, ester gums, plasticizer, cosmetics, liquid soap, perfume and toothpaste (good solubility and taste give glycerine an edge on sorbitol in toothpastes, which are estimated to make up almost one-third of glycerine's market in personal care products); as a component of antifreeze mixtures; to keep fabrics pliable, to preserve printing on cotton, to keep frost from windshields; as a source of nutrients for fermentation cultures in the production of antibiotics; as a preservative in some pharmaceutical and biological preparations and in non-alcoholic extracts and tinctures. It has many other applications.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Drugs and personal care, toothpaste, foods and beverages, tobacco, polyether polyols for urethanes, alkyd resins, cellophane, plasticizer, humectant and lubricant uses